Soviet Disinformation During Periods Of Relaxed East-West Tension, 1959-1979
[Note: This document, although nearly 30 years old, is posted as a contribution to the current debate over "fake news," disinformation, and Russian influence in foreign governments. For "Soviet," please substitute mentally "Russian imperialism," since the goals of the Kremlin are unchanged. Editing conforms to CIP style.]
The flag of the Crimean Tatars, oppressed by Russian imperialist occupation
The purpose of this study is to examine whether Soviet disinformation activities historically have ceased during periods of relaxation in tension between the Soviet Union and the United States.
A review of the record shows that one of the most remarkable aspects of the long-term relationship between the Soviet bloc, on the one hand, and the United States and its allies, on the other, consists in the continuation, during such periods, of Soviet disinformation and related activities. They have been aimed at undermining the influence of western governments, and particularly the United States, and at sowing dissension between them. The present study briefly examines some outstanding examples of this phenomenon, beginning with the 1959-1960 period, characterized by the "spirit of Camp David," and concluding with the 1971-1979 period known as an era of detente.
This study concentrates on forgeries, the most obvious and damaging example of disinformation activities. The sources utilized include official U.S. government publications, information provided by Soviet-bloc defectors, and official Soviet publications. The Soviet Union has been identified as the origin either because Soviet agents adopted and used the forgery in question or because Central Intelligence Agency analysis of the forgery concluded that Moscow was the originator.
THE SPIRIT OF CAMP DAVID, 1959-60
The phase of East-West cordiality traditionally placed by historians under the rubric of Camp David begins in September 1959 with the visit of Soviet Communist Party chief Nikita Khrushchev to the U.S. The mood in the U.S. was hopeful; the common term for the relationship between the two superpowers was dialogue, and both public and governmental opinion in the U.S. genuinely sought evidence that the Soviets had changed since the death of Josef Stalin six years before. In propaganda terms, Party leader Khrushchev was portrayed as a human figure, strongly contrasted with the Stalin who had in reality been Khrushchev's mentor.
The sources of this benevolent image included Khrushchev's attack on Stalin in the "secret speech" at the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in 1956 as well as his somewhat bumptious, rural cultural mannerisms, which were found endearing by American media and the public. By contrast, U.S. president Dwight David Eisenhower was perceived as something of a naive bumbler, politically unsophisticated, and highly dependent on his advisers. But above all, the accent in the U.S., in Europe, and elsewhere was on hope, on the belief that the spirit of Camp David would herald a new era in U.S.-Soviet understanding.
However, it soon became clear that in one significant area, at least, little had changed in the conduct of the Soviet Union toward the West: that is, the area of disinformation and forgeries. It was during the Camp David. period that two of the most significant applications of this political weapon, were detected. These were the fraudulent Sam Sary-Kellogg letter. on Cambodia and the forged Rockefeller document. Both of these items illustrate central elements in the overall pattern of Soviet disinformation.
1. The Sam Sary/Kellogg Letter, January 16, 1960
This fake document appeared in the Indian newsweekly BLITZ on January 16, 1960. BLITZ is a leftist periodical with a long history as a source for Soviet propaganda attacks on the U.S., and the manner of its functioning was described in the late 1950s by a defected Soviet intelligence officer, Aleksandar Kaznačejev, as follows: "(one) of the (newspapers) most notorious by (its) close ties with the Soviet intelligence, as I. learned during my service with the KGB." The false document was a purported letter from Cambodian political figure Sam Sary to a U.S. Embassy official named Kellogg, appeared in BLITZ under the headline "US Uses Traitor Sam Sary's Bid to Suck Cambodia Into SEATO." The document itself was presented as a handwritten letter from Mr. Sary to Mr. Kellogg, in English. The gist of the document was that Mr. Sary sought intervention by the U.S., Thailand, and then pro-Western South Vietnam in a conspiracy to overthrow neutralist Prince Norodom Sihanouk. Kaznačejev noted in his book INSIDE A SOVIET EMBASSY that Mr. Kellogg had left Cambodia three months before the date on which, as stated in the letter, he supposedly met with members of the anti-Sihanouk opposition. The apparent goal of this forgery was to excite suspicion within Cambodia as to the intentions of the country's neighbors, Thailand and South Vietnam, in the context of their commitments to SEATO and the alliance with the U.S.
2. The Forged Rockefeller Letter, 1957-1960
On February 15, 1957, the East German daily NEUES DEUTSCHLAND, official organ of the ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED), published, under the headline "Secret Rockefeller Document," an extensive forgery presented as a private letter from Nelson A. Rockefeller to President Eisenhower. This forgery circulated throughout the world during the "Camp David" period, appearing in such media as Radio Moscow, the Soviet party organ PRAVDA and USSR news agency TASS, Radio Hanoi, the Czechoslovak domestic press, and Radio Beijing as well as the official news agency of the People's Republic of China.
In the "letter" then-Governor Rockefeller was portrayed as the advocate of a "bolder program of aid to under-developed countries" as a cover for what the East Germany press referred to as "supercolonialism" (superkolonialismus). The "letter" was printed in its "original" typewritten form. Its obvious aim was to discredit the U.S. commitment to the removal of the old colonial powers from their involvements in Asia and Africa.
A cursory examination of the "letter" by any reasonably-literate American clearly showed its faked character. To begin with, its opening paragraph is couched in language completely inappropriate for a Republican politician addressing a President of the same party, referring to a "tiresome discussion" supposedly held between the two men at Camp David. Secondly, the "letter" displays spelling and other usage characteristic of a writer whose native language is not American English.
The words "emphasizing" and "economize" with an "s" rather than a "z," and the word "favour"¨ with a "u", reflect British rather than American style. Further, selected sentences in the "letter" suggest its composition by an individual not wholly familiar with the rigorous canons of English grammar to be expected from someone of Rockefeller's education. Finally, the blatant tone of the document's "superkolonial" recommendations certainly indicate a spurious origin.
The Camp David period ended in May 1960 when Khrushchev refused participation in summit talks with President Eisenhower because of the U-2 overflight of Soviet territory.
THE TEST-BAN TREATY PERIOD, 1963
In the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962, a second period of East-West rapprochement emerged in summer 1963, with the signing of the nuclear test-ban treaty by President John F. Kennedy. The beginning of this period of optimism is often identified with a speech on U.S.-Soviet relations by President Kennedy at American University on June 10, 1963.
During the Kennedy administration, a theme that has remained a major one came to the fore in disinformation: that of the criminality of the Central Intelligence Agency and, especially, its director.
As stated in a pamphlet titled SPY NO. 1, issued by Gospolitizdat, the State Publishing House for Political Literature in Moscow, in June 1963, then-CIA Director John McCone was described as "the organizer of dirty political intrigues and criminal conspiracies."
With the assassination of President Kennedy in November 1963, and notwithstanding the hopeful attitudes expressed by both sides following the test-ban treaty signing, this theme increased in stridency, featuring the additional suggestion that the President's murderer, Lee Oswald, was a CIA operative. Simultaneous with the death of President Kennedy, two faked issues of NEWSWEEK magazine appeared in Paris, France, laden with anti-American propaganda regarding the progress of the civil rights movement in the U.S. Aside from their covers the NEWSWEEK forgeries were obviously inauthentic -- their contents were limited to photographs and captions in a style wholly unlike that of the actual newsmagazine. The manifest goal pursued in this instance was to cast doubt on the reality of the U.S. administration's support for civil rights.
In a report to the House of Representatives on September 28, 1965, Rep. Melvin Price (R-IL) noted that "14 new forgeries" had appeared by the end of July 1965.
THE SPIRIT OF GLASSBORO, 1967-1968
By the time of the brief "spirit of Glassboro," Soviet party First Secretary Khrushchev had been replaced by the team of Aleksei Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev. Kosygin met with President Lyndon B. Johnson at Glassboro, New Jersey in the wake of the June 1967 Mideast war. It was during this period that one of the most long-lived forgeries appeared in Western Europe, namely, the "Top Secret Documents on U.S. Forces in Europe." This melange of real and false U.S. contingency plans for war in Europe, subtitled in published form "Holocaust Again for Europe". claims to demonstrate that "U.S. thinking is still dominated by preparation for war." Its first appearance came in the Norwegian periodical ORIENTERING in 1967. It reappeared in London in June 1980 and subsequently.
The most recent era of relaxation in U.S.-Soviet relations began with the visit of President Richard M. Nixon to Moscow in 1972, and included, inter alia, the signing of both the SALT I and SALT II agreements, the latter at a meeting between Leonid Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter during a summit in Vienna in 1979. Like the Camp David period, that of detente, as this one came to be known, was characterized by great initial hope that the Soviets would demonstrate a change in their basic attitudes toward the West. Between 1972 and 1976 a possible hiatus in forgery activities was noted by the Central Intelligence Agency. It may be that the appearance of such a diminution of active measures was a product of Western failure in data collection rather than an absence of Soviet actions.
Analyzing the possibility of a hiatus in terms of Soviet intentions, Professor Ladislav Bittman, a defector from Czechoslovak intelligence with an extensive knowledge of disinformation operations, has concluded that overall disinformation activities increase during periods of East-West relaxation, when Soviet operatives act to exploit the fact that the West's guard is down. Bittman has noted that the period of continuing detente following the possible hiatus saw a "forgery offensive" and a campaign of general active measures against the U.S. and its allies nearly unparalleled in the data assembled by Western observers. The temporary fall in demand for forgeries did not lead to the shutdown of the disinformation industry. While forgeries, for example, may have declined in frequency, other disinformation practices increased.
The following are thirteen instances in the four years ending with the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan -- the official closing event of detente -- that delimit the forgery offensive. Items 1 through 3 are taken as of Soviet origin because of their adoption and use by official Soviet media, or by the testimony of Soviet defectors. Items 4 through 15 were provided to the U.S. Congress by the Central Intelligence Agency as examples of Soviet-originated forgeries.
1.The Fake Zhou Enlai Will -- January 1976.
In January 1976, four years after the U.S. opening to the People's Republic of China, an invented last will and testament supposedly from the hand of recently-deceased PRC premier Zhou Enlai appeared in the Japanese daily SANKEI SHIMBUN. SANKEI is one of the most respected newspapers in Japan, and is quite conservative. The fake will was highly convincing in that it put forward a view that was known to be characteristic of Premier Zhou, namely, a repudiation of the post-1966 "great proletarian cultural revolution". However, it also purported to show sympathies on Zhou's part toward reconciliation between China and the Soviet Union. The clear aims of this forgery were varied: to encourage political turmoil in China, including stimulation of anti-U.S., pro-Soviet elements, by exploiting Zhou's great popularity, and to heighten suspicion toward China on the part of Japanese public opinion, which tends to view Soviet intentions in the region -- and particularly the possibility of a renewed Soviet-Chinese association -- with great concern. The official Soviet news agency, TASS, redistributed the article throughout the world, citing SANKEI, with its conservative reputation, as its source. KGB defector Stanislav Levčenko, who served in Japan before coming over to the West, has stated that this fraud was perpetrated by Service A of the KGB First Chief Directorate. Further, according to Levčenko the KGB-recruited editor of SANKEI responsible for placing the forgery was later promoted to a position as managing editor of the paper.
2. Field Manual 30-31B -- September 1976.
Perhaps the outstanding incident in the forgery offensive, in terms of its sophistication, its impact, and its continued use, as well as its utility for Western analysts, is the case of "Field Manual 30-31B," a concoction purporting to be a U.S. military-issue manual for support to leftist terrorism. 30-31B is claimed to be a secret supplement to two authentic military procedural guides, FM 30-31, and 30-31A. The title of the fake is "Stability Operations-Intelligence." In form, it is a poor photocopy of a typewritten document, accompanied by a spurious letter over the signature of former Army chief of staff Gen. William C. Westmoreland. Its unarguable intention is to attribute leftist terrorism around the world to U.S. intelligence operations, with the probable dual aim of undermining U.S. prestige with foreign governments and of diverting attention from Soviet and bloc involvements with such terrorists. This point in the Soviet disinformation agenda has proven to be a major one.
FM 30-31B first surfaced in Thailand in September 1976, on a bulletin board at the embassy of the Philippines, along with a cover letter addressed to Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos. At this time, the leftist movement inside the Philippines was clearly dominated by pro-Chinese elements hostile to Soviet interests. The Soviets had embarked on a process of flirtation with Marcos that years later would culminate, just before the fall of his regime, in Soviet support to his electoral campaign. However, it seems the forgery did not reach Marcos, and its application to Southeast Asia was negligible. Its main use has come in Europe, and most importantly in a nation beset by a non-ethnic, purely ideological, far-leftist terrorism: Italy. Its impact in such an environment can be impressive. Marked "TOP SECRET," FM 30-31B. purports to demonstrate that the U.S. military sanctions "the use of extreme leftist organization to safeguard the interests of the United States in friendly nations where communists appear close to entering the government," according to the fake letter attributed to General Westmoreland In Italy in 1978, soon after FM 30-31B was surfaced on the European continent, the Red Brigades had reached the zenith of their armed offensive against the Italian state, by kidnapping and murdering Aldo Moro. Moro, a Christian Democrat politician, was the architect of an understanding with the Italian Communist Party that many believed might lead to a grand coalition of the Christian Democrats and Communists.
The medium for the appearance of FM 30-31B in Europe, on September 18, 1976, was the eminent Spanish daily, EL PAIS which, although considered Spain's most prestigious media organ is characterized by a strongly critical line on U.S. foreign policy that frequently allows its use as a Soviet propaganda platform, although it seldom provides such access to domestic Spanish leftists.
On September 23, 1976, an extended version of the forgery appeared in another Spanish publication, the newsweekly TRIUNFO, which had emerged in the twilight of the Franco era as a tolerated voice for the left. Fernando Gonzalez, a Spanish Communist party (PCE) member who presented the forgery in TRIUNFO, attributed its ostensible discovery to a Turkish newspaper that supposedly had been closed down for revealing its existence. Turkey, even more than Italy, was then beset by leftist terrorism in the form of Dev Yol and Dev Genc, two armed mass groupings that acquired a considerable following in the youth of the country, and fought a kind of mini-civil war against the Turkish right, producing many hundreds of deaths. The Turkish crisis resulted in the fall of democratic rule and a period of military dictatorship. Similar preoccupations were widespread in Spain, where it was feared that the post-Franco transition to democracy. would be destroyed because of Basque and Maoist terrorism. The forgery then appeared in the Paris daily LE MONDE, and in the Netherlands, followed by Italy, Greece, and Portugal. As noted, it is in these countries that its effect was most pronounced: Portugal, like Italy, Turkey, and Spain, had undergone a serious terrorist experience, and Greece had long been a fertile ground for anti-American propaganda. In addition, and most importantly, most of the five Mediterranean republics -- Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, and Turkey -- at one time or another have suffered vulnerabilities in the structure of institutionalized democracy.
(FM 30-31B has also surfaced in the U.S., through the gadfly publication COVERT ACTION INFORMATION BULLETIN, and has been officially sanctioned for Soviet public use in two publications as recent as 1983: INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND THE CIA: DOCUMENTS, EYEWITNESS REPORTS, FACTS, and Yu. Pankov, editor, POLITICAL TERRORISM: AN INDICTMENT OF IMPERIALISM. Both of these publications appear under the imprint of Progress Publishers, Moscow, in English and other non-Russian languages. In these publications, it is linked to a conspiracy against constitutional government in Italy, identified with the ultra-rightist pseudo-Masonic P-2 lodges organized under the control of one Licio Gelli. In addition, in 1985 a forgery was detected in Italy in which the theme of U.S. involvement in the Red Brigades was reintroduced.)
3. Airgram A-8950 -- November 1976.
On November 7, 1976, THE TIMES of London revealed the existence of a forged State department document, "Airgram A-8950," which consists of a largely authentic document altered to support the claim that U.S. officials were pursuing a campaign of bribery and undercutting of the economic effectiveness of America's foreign trade competitors. The bogus airgram was then adopted by the official Soviet news agency, TASS, without mention of the TIMES's clear description of its spurious nature.
4. The Edwin Yeo speech -- December 1976.
December 1976 saw the appearance of a series of forgeries aimed at disrupting the improvement of U.S. relations with the Arab Republic of Egypt. The first of these was a fake copy of the journal AMERICAN ECONOMICS, which is published by the United States Information Agency, in Athens, Greece. The content of this item was an invented speech by U.S. Treasury Undersecretary Edwin Yeo, replete with insulting remarks about Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat.
5. Egyptian Forgeries -- Second Round -- 1977.
A second round of forgeries aimed at poisoning U.S.-Egyptian relations surfaced in 1977. The first was a film negative of a spurious letter from U.S. Amb. H.F. Eilts, to the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to Cairo, ostensibly recommending a joint intervention policy by the U.S. and Saudi Arabia in the Sudan, Egypt's southern neighbor. The second was a forged collection of notes supposedly by U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, containing critical statements about Sadat, King Hussein of Jordan, President Hafez al-Assad of Syria, and the leaders of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
The target area for this particular document, which was noted in April 1977, was a broader range of Arab states. The third such product, surfacing in June 1977, was another fake letter from Amb. Eilts, this time addressed to the State Department in Washington, and attacking the leadership of President Sadat. The first Eilts forgery and the bogus Vance notes were brought to public attention through delivery to, respectively, the Sudanese embassy in Beirut and the Egyptian embassy in Rome. The second Eilts fraud was sent to Egyptian newspapers.
6. Teheran Dispatch -- August 1977.
In August 1977, the Egyptian embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia received by mail a fake dispatch supposedly originating in the U.S. embassy in Teheran, Iran. This item purported to demonstrate that the Shah of Iran and Saudi Arabia were plotting to overthrow Sadat, with Israeli support and American acquiescence, in line with an overall U.S. strategy to install conservative regimes in the Middle East. It should be noted that while items 2 and 3 in the forgery offensive, namely the fraudulent field manual and airgram, reflect a high quality of editorial work in English, and although the items under 4 and 5 -- the Egyptian forgeries -- show a fairly low incidence of obvious errors, the Teheran dispatch was clearly the work of a non-English native speaker.
7. The Fake Carter Speech -- December 1977.
In December 1977, a fraudulent speech by President Jimmy Carter was mailed to a number of Greek newspapers, and published in the leading Athens daily TO VIMA as well as in the daily organ of the pro-Moscow "Exterior" faction of the Greek Communist Party, RIZOSPASTIS. The forgery contained very negative remarks about Greece along with statements calling on the Greek government to strengthen its commitment to the NATO alliance. Like item 6, the Teheran dispatch, the faults of English usage in the Carter speech clearly indicated its fabrication by a non-English speaker.
8. State Department Telegram -- March 1978.
On March 17, 1978 then-member of the Greek parliament Andreas Papandreou, a representative of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement who is at the time of this writing prime minister of Greece, had tabled a copy of what he claimed was a September 1976 telegram from the State Department titled "Greek Turkish Dispute in the Aegean," in which fraudulent evidence was presented for a U.S. policy in favor of Turkish claims in the area. It is not known how Papandreou came into possession of this item.
9. Defense Intelligence Agency Collection Document -- 1978.
Toward the beginning of 1978 the Greek daily TO VIMA obtained a copy of a fabricated Defense Intelligence Agency document calling for political surveillance of 43 Greek leftwing political groupings. TO VIMA perceived the falsity of the concoction and declined to publish it. Although procedural instructions included in the document were obsolete at the time of its supposed preparation, its language was close to American English standards for such documents. In analyzing items 7 through 9, the Greek forgeries, it is interesting to note the range of Greek concerns targeted by the authors of the fraudulent materials -- Greek involvement with NATO, which remains a sensitive subject in that country, Greek fear of Turkey and concern over possible internal political interference.
10. The Luns Letter -- June 1978.
In the first week of June 1978 a spurious letter from NATO Secretary General Joseph M.A. Luns, addressed to U.S. NATO Amb. W. Tapley Bennett, was received by Belgian newspapers. The intention of the forgery, as in item 9, the fake DIA collection document, was to sow suspicion regarding possible U.S. interference in the internal affairs of the target country, in this instance through the suggestion that U.S. authorities sought harassment of journalists "showing a negative attitude to the neutron bomb." This action coincided with a worldwide Soviet-coordinated campaign against the so-called.horror bomb. The Luns fake was published in at least two leading Dutch-language dailies, without noting its bogus character.
11. Mondale Interview -- July 1978.
A fraudulent U.S. Embassy press release outlining a fabricated interview between Vice President Walter Mondale and a nonexistent "Karl Douglas" was received by Paris newspaper and news service correspondents in July 1978. The content of the fake included disrespectful remarks about Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat. The poor English usage in the document indicated its obviously phony character.
12. Heard Letter -- 1978-79.
Late in 1978 and through the beginning of the next year a spurious letter from U.S. Air Force Col. Allen P. Heard, Chief of the Foreign Liaison Division in the U.S. Department of the Air Force, addressed to Col. Armand Troquet, Belgian defense attache in Washington, was received by members of the Belgian cabinet. Errors in English usage betrayed its corrupt origin. The disinformation content of the letter purported to demonstrate the existence of a U.S. agreement with the People's Republic of China for interference in Zaire, the former Belgian Congo.
13. Mitchell Report - January 1979.
AL-DAWA, a Cairo magazine published by the fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood, published in January 1979 what it asserted was a highly confidential document originating with the CIA. The content of this forgery ostensibly indicated that U.S. authorities sought to combat Muslim Brotherhood opposition to Israel-Egypt peace negotiations through bribery and intrigue. This fraud was reprinted in May-June 1979 by THE MUSLIM STANDARD, a periodical in Port of Spain, Trinidad.
14. Green Letter -- April 1979.
In April 1979 a fake letter from U.S. defense attache in Rome CPT William C. Green, USN, was received by newspapers in Naples, Italy, clearly intended to associate infant deaths in the Naples region and destruction of oyster beds with storage and spillage of chemical and bacteriological war materiel at a U.S. military facility.
15. Third Eilts Fake -- October 1979.
The Syrian newspaper AL-BA'TH, published by the ruling party in Damascus, on October 1, 1979, presented a third bogus letter supposedly by U.S. Amb. to Egypt H.F. Eilts. In this instance, the text consisted purportedly of a private letter to Director of Central Intelligence Stansfield Turner.
The document ostensibly showed a U.S. intention to "repudiate and get rid of" Egyptian leader Sadat should he prove recalcitrant in accepting U.S. demands. The fraudulent letter also sought to demonstrate negative U.S. intentions toward the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
In summary, because Marxist-Leninist ideology presumes and indeed mandates irreconcilable differences between the two social systems, periods of warmth have not brought about a cessation of hostile disinformation activities by the Soviet Union. The persistent Soviet search for advantages in Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific has made continued disinformation efforts an irresistible temptation, particularly in those eras when the climate of opinion in the West is most receptive to the view that Kremlin leaders are bent on reforming Soviet domestic and foreign policies. To use a favorite Soviet expression, it is no accident that it is precisely in these regions that the bulk of disinformation and forgery enterprises are detected.
Ladislav Bittman, telephone interview, January 4, 1988..
"Communist Forgeries," Testimony of Richard Helms, Senate Judiciary Committee, June 2,1961, pp. 80, 9-13.
INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND THE CIA: DOCUMENTS, EYEWITNESS REPORTS, FACTS, Moscow, Progress Publishers, 1983 (in English), pp. 221-227.
Alexander Kaznacheev, INSIDE A SOVIET EMBASSY, Philadelphia and New York, Lippincott, 1962, pp. 177 and ff.
Yu. Pankov, ed., POLITICAL TERRORISM -- AN INDICTMENT OF IMPERIALISM, Moscow, Progress Publishers, 1983 (in English), pp. 213, 262.
"Soviet Active Measures," Hearings Before the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, July 13, 14, 1982, pp. 74-88.
"The Soviet and Communist Bloc Defamation Campaign," Remarks of Rep. Melvin Price (R-IL), CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, September 28, 1965, pp. 24478-24479.
"Soviet Covert Action (The Forgery Offensive)," Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Oversight of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, February 6, 1980, pp. 190-246.
Richard H. Shultz and Roy Godson, DEZINFORMATSIA: ACTIVE MEASURES IN SOVIET STRATEGY. Washington, Pergamon-Brassey's, 1984.
Adam Ulam, THE RIVALS: AMERICA AND RUSSIA SINCE WORLD WAR II. New York, Viking, 1971.
U.S. Government Publications Consulted
CIA Report on Soviet Propaganda Operations, Report to House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, April 20, 1978.